The Arab Spring and Education: The Need for an Islamic Pedagogy

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The Quran set the rights, the responsibilities and the rules for people and for societies to adhere to, like not dealing in interest. Muhammad then provided an example, which is recorded in the hadith books, showing people how he practically implemented these rules in a society. After the passing of Muhammad , there was a need for jurists, to decide on new legal matters where there is no such ruling in the Quran or the Hadith, example of Islamic prophet Muhammad regarding a similar case.

In the years proceeding Muhammad, the community in Madina continued to use the same rules. People were familiar with the practice of Muhammad and therefore continued to use the same rules. The scholars appearing in the diagram below were taught by Muhammad's companions , many of whom settled in Madina. Aisha also taught her nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr. He then taught his son Hisham ibn Urwah , who was the main teacher of Malik ibn Anas whose views many Sunni follow and also taught Jafar al-Sadiq. Muhammad al-Bukhari travelled everywhere collecting hadith and his father Ismail ibn Ibrahim was a student of Malik ibn Anas.

In the books actually written by these original jurists and scholars, there are very few theological and judicial differences between them.

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Imam Ahmad rejected the writing down and codifying of the religious rulings he gave. They knew that they might have fallen into error in some of their judgements and stated this clearly. They never introduced their rulings by saying, "Here, this judgement is the judgement of God and His prophet. They all give priority to the Qur'an and the Hadith the practice of Muhammad. They felt that the Quran and the Hadith, the example of Muhammad provided people with almost everything they needed. These scholars did not distinguish between each other. They were not Sunni or Shia.

They felt that they were following the religion of Abraham as described in the Quran "Say: Allah speaks the truth; so follow the religion of Abraham, the upright one. And he was not one of the polytheists" Qur'an Most of the differences are regarding Sharia laws devised through Ijtihad where there is no such ruling in the Quran or the Hadiths of Islamic prophet Muhammad regarding a similar case. As explained in the Muwatta [16] by Malik ibn Anas. To reduce the divergence, ash-Shafi'i proposed giving priority to the Qur'an and the Hadith the practice of Muhammad and only then look at the consensus of the Muslim jurists ijma and analogical reasoning qiyas.

Sahih translates as authentic or correct.


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They also felt that Muhammad's judgement was more impartial and better than their own. These original jurists and scholars also acted as a counterbalance to the rulers. When they saw injustice, all these scholars spoke out against it. As the state expanded outside Madina, the rights of the different communities, as they were constituted in the Constitution of Medina still applied. The Quran also gave additional rights to the citizens of the state and these rights were also applied.

Ali, Hassan and Hussein ibn Ali gave their allegiance to the first three caliphs because they abided by these conditions. Later Ali the fourth caliph wrote in a letter "I did not approach the people to get their oath of allegiance but they came to me with their desire to make me their Amir ruler. I did not extend my hands towards them so that they might swear the oath of allegiance to me but they themselves extended their hands towards me". But then his forces were depleted in Iraq, trying to stop the Khawarij. The Ummayads then moved in. After a lengthy campaign, in his last hour Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr asked his mother Asma' bint Abu Bakr the daughter of Abu Bakr the first caliph for advice.

Asma' bint Abu Bakr replied to her son, she said: [31] "You know better in your own self, that if you are upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth, for people more honourable than you have been killed and if you are not upon the truth, then what an evil son you are and you have destroyed yourself and those who are with you. If you say, that if you are upon the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others, then you will not truly be free".

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr left and was later also killed and crucified by the Syrian Roman Army now under the control of the Umayyads and led by Hajjaj. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr the son of Abu Bakr the first caliph and raised by Ali the fourth caliph was also killed by the Ummayads. During the early Ummayad period, there was more community involvement. The Quran and Muhammad's example was the main source of law after which the community decided. If it worked for the community, was just and did not conflict with the Quran and the example of Muhammad, it was accepted.

This made it easier for the different communities, with Roman, Persian, Central Asia and North African backgrounds to integrate into the Islamic State and that assisted in the quick expansion of the Islamic State. The scholars in Madina were consulted on the more complex judicial issues.

The Sharia and the official more centralized schools of fiqh developed later, during the time of the Abbasids. The Qur'an gives clear instructions on many issues, such as how to perform the ritual purification wudu before the obligatory daily prayers salat , but on other issues, some Muslims believe the Qur'an alone is not enough to make things clear. For example, the Qur'an states one needs to engage in daily prayers salat and fast sawm during the month of Ramadan but Muslims believe they need further instructions on how to perform these duties.

Details about these issues can be found in the traditions of Muhammad, so Qur'an and Sunnah are in most cases the basis for Shariah. Some topics are without precedent in Islam's early period. In those cases, Muslim jurists Fuqaha try to arrive at conclusions by other means.

Evaluating Our Lenses

Sunni jurists use historical consensus of the community Ijma ; a majority in the modern era also use analogy Qiyas and weigh the harms and benefits of new topics Istislah , and a plurality utilizes juristic preference Istihsan. The conclusions arrived at with the aid of these additional tools constitute a wider array of laws than the Sharia consists of, and is called fiqh. Thus, in contrast to the sharia , fiqh is not regarded as sacred and the schools of thought have differing views on its details, without viewing other conclusions as sacrilegious.

This division of interpretation in more detailed issues has resulted in different schools of thought madh'hab. This wider concept of Islamic jurisprudence is the source of a range of laws in different topics that guide Muslims in everyday life. The modus operandi of the Muslim jurist is known as usul al-fiqh "principles of jurisprudence".

There are different approaches to the methodology used in jurisprudence to derive Islamic law from the primary sources. The main methodologies are those of the Sunni , Shi'a and Ibadi denominations. While both Sunni and Shi'ite Shia are divided into smaller sub-schools, the differences among the Shi'ite schools is considerably greater. Ibadites only follow a single school without divisions. While using court decisions as legal precedents and case law are central to Western law, the importance of the institution of fatawa non-binding answers by Islamic legal scholars to legal questions has been called "central to the development" of Islamic jurisprudence.

Each school madhhab reflects a unique al-urf or culture a cultural practice that was influenced by traditions , that the classical jurists themselves lived in, when rulings were made. Some suggest that the discipline of isnad , which developed to validate hadith made it relatively easy to record and validate also the rulings of jurists. This, in turn, made them far easier to imitate taqlid than to challenge in new contexts. The argument is, the schools have been more or less frozen for centuries, and reflect a culture that simply no longer exists.

Traditional scholars hold that religion is there to regulate human behavior and nurture people's moral side and since human nature has not fundamentally changed since the beginning of Islam a call to modernize the religion is essentially one to relax all laws and institutions.

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Early shariah had a much more flexible character, and some modern Muslim scholars believe that it should be renewed, and that the classical jurists should lose special status. This would require formulating a new fiqh suitable for the modern world, e. This modernization is opposed by most conservative ulema. Traditional scholars hold that the laws are contextual and consider circumstance such as time, place and culture, the principles they are based upon are universal such as justice, equality and respect.

Many Muslim scholars argue that even though technology may have advanced, the fundamentals of human life have not. The schools of Sunni Islam are each named by students of the classical jurist who taught them. The Sunni schools and where they are commonly found are. Entirely separate from both the Sunni and Shia traditions, Khawarij Islam has evolved its own distinct school.


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These schools share many of their rulings, but differ on the particular hadiths they accept as authentic and the weight they give to analogy or reason qiyas in deciding difficulties. A number of important legal institutions were developed by Muslim jurists during the classical period of Islam, known as the Islamic Golden Age.

One such institution was the Hawala , an early informal value transfer system , which is mentioned in texts of Islamic jurisprudence as early as the 8th century.

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Hawala itself later influenced the development of the agency in common law and in civil laws such as the aval in French law and the avallo in Italian law. The Waqf in Islamic law , which developed during the 7th—9th centuries, bears a notable resemblance to the trusts in the English trust law. The Islamic lafif was a body of twelve members drawn from the neighbourhood and sworn to tell the truth, who were bound to give a unanimous verdict , about matters "which they had personally seen or heard, binding on the judge , to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, between ordinary people, and obtained as of right by the plaintiff.

Several other fundamental common law institutions may have been adapted from similar legal institutions in Islamic law and jurisprudence, and introduced to England by the Normans after the Norman conquest of England and the Emirate of Sicily, and by Crusaders during the Crusades. In particular, the "royal English contract protected by the action of debt is identified with the Islamic Aqd , the English assize of novel disseisin is identified with the Islamic Istihqaq , and the English jury is identified with the Islamic lafif.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Shahada Salat Raka'ah Qibla Turbah. Sunnah salat Tahajjud Tarawih.

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Marriage Contract Mahr. Riba Murabaha Takaful Sukuk. Dhabihah Alcohol Pork. Jihad Hudna Istijarah asylum Prisoners of war. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Texts and sciences. Culture and society. Related topics.

Educational Transitions in Post-Revolutionary Spaces

Main article: Sharia. Further information: Islamic economics in the world. Further information: Principles of Islamic jurisprudence. Main article: Usul al-fiqh. Main article: Madhhab. Main article: Sharia: Classic Islamic law. Islam portal Law portal. Collins English Dictionary. Enlight Press. Retrieved 22 December Weiss , Leiden: E. Minimum GPA: 3. GRE is required. UA code is Use school code area studies , or social sciences, other This is required for both domestic and international students. MENAS awards financial aid on a competitive basis. Meritorious factors include demonstrated excellence in academics including GPA, progress in the program for current students , test scores for incoming students , publication, and professional experience such as a previous assistantship or other Middle East-related experience.

Most funding is awarded in the fall for the academic year, therefore students entering the program in the spring have a minimal opportunity for departmental support.